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Ut ur kroppen-upplevelse Asomatisk upplevelse, Förändrat medvetandetillstånd, Kroppslig frigörelse

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Försteredaktör: Jonas
Denna text är importerad från /old/psi/obe.html
är en sorts Asomatisk upplevelse , Förändrat medvetandetillstånd , Upplevbart , Praktiserbart och Kroppslig frigörelse

I en sådan upplever personen att han lyfter och ser sin egen kropp utifrån.

Alias: translokation, out-of-body experiences, autoskopisk fas, obe, uku, själsresor, utomkroppsliga-upplevelser, exkursionsupplevelse, exomatik, u-k-u, out of body experience, ut ur kroppen-upplevelse, ut ur kroppen upplevelse, astralresa och astralresor

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UKU - en lurad hjärna eller frigjord själ?

Ett psykiskt tillstånd då individen tycker att han befinner sig utanför sin kropp och betraktar sig själv från en punkt utanför.

Ut-ur-kroppenupplevelser är vanligast i hypnagoga tillstånd (mellan sömn och vakenhet), men också vid långvarig sömnbrist och barnafödande. Man tycker sig lämna den fysiska kroppen och slippa begränsningar som väggar och tak, kunna färdas fritt till platser bara genom att tänka på dem.

Ibland är dessa upplevelser skrämmande, men för det mesta behagliga och fascinerande.
Upplevelsen är helt skild från hallucination eller dröm, den känns helt verklig både medan den pågår och efteråt.

Modern neurovetenskaplig forskning har hittat samband mellan vissa hjärnskador och ut-ur-kroppen-upplevelser. I första hand gäller det skador som uppstått i hjärnan vid stroke, dyslexi och epilepsi.

Sedan tidigare har man känt till att ett visst område i tinningloben vid stimulans kan ge andliga upplevelser.

Visuell manipulering på konstgjord väg kan ge samma effekt. Vår jaguppfattning skapas av hjärnan. Signaler från sinnena kopplas samman så att vi får en uppfattning om ett kroppsligt jag och var detta jag befinner sig. Vår syn, beröring av huden, muskler och balanssinnet hjälps åt att foga samman en bild av detta kroppsliga jag. Hjärnan gör alltså tolkningar av sinnesintrycken. Genom att manipulera de sensoriska signalerna kan man lura hjärnan till upplevelsen att jaget har flyttat ut ur kroppen.

Experiment pågår på Karolinska Institutet av kognitive neurovetaren Henrik Ehrsson. Utomkroppsliga upplevelser kan alltså framkallas genom att integreringen av den samlade sensoriska informationen störs (jfr. Virtuell verklighet).

Vetenskapen tycks vilja se dessa upplevelser som en slags illusion. Dock vimlar det av rapporteringar från t.ex. människor som nersövda på operationsbord upplevt och sett hela händelseförloppet. Vid uppvaknandet har de sedan kunnat berätta detaljer som endast kunnat registreras av en person i annat läge än sängliggande - t.ex. om föremål på hyllor högt ovanför och ej synliga från sängläge.

Reflexioner man kan göra är:

1) är det så att en del skador i hjärnan skapar ökade förutsättningar för UKU?

2) är det också så att visuell eller virtuell manipulering blir en genväg till UKU?

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Subjektiva eller objektiva upplevelser?

Det kan vara svårt att veta om en astral upplevelse är till 100% objektiv.

I början är det vanligast att man har mer eller mindre medvetna/klara (mer eller mindre subjektiva) upplevelser, men om man kämpar och tränar upp koncentrationen ökar chanserna att få objektiva erfarenheter.

Det är projicerade drömbilder som gör att en upplevelse blir subjektiv, men om man tränar upp en stark koncentration stöts drömbilderna bort, dessa bilder orkar inte längre påverka eller förvränga upplevelsen.

Antalet inre upplevelser är ett mått på hur långt man har kommit i sin andliga utveckling.

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(Out of the Body Experience = OBE)

I en sådan upplever personen att han lyfter och ser sin egen kropp utifrån. Dessa upplevelser känns ofta verkligare än normalt vaket tillstånd. Själva utbrytandet kan ibland vara obehagligt medan resterande upplevelse är behaglig. Ibland har dessa personer givit sig ut på upptäcktsfärder och har då ibland sett saker som de inte skulle kunnat veta genom kända sensomotoriska kanaler.

OBE uppträder ofta i samband med NDE. OBE kan ha vissa likheter med klara flygdrömmar.

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Hur vanliga är ut ur kroppen-upplevelser? Den mycket skeptiska engelska forskaren Susan Blackmore, som menar att dessa upplevelser är mycket intressanta hallucinationer säger att 10-15 procent av alla människor har haft en sådan upplevelse enligt de undersökningar som gjorts.


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Enkäter

I boken Ut-ur-kroppen-upplevelser redogörs för ett antal enkätstudier.

  • 1954 frågade Hart 155 studerande om de någonsin haft obe. 27,1 % tillstod det. De flesta av dem hade haft fler än en.
  • 1975 frågade Palmer och Dessis tusen studenter och invånare i Charlottesvill, Virginia, USA, om de haft obe. 25 % av studenterna och 14 % av stadsbefolkningen svarade ja.
  • 1976 ställde Green samma fråga till 350 elever på gymnasienivå. 34 % sa att de upplevt exkursionsfenomenen.
  • 1978 frågade Blackmore 132 parapsykologistuderande om deras obe. 10,6 % menade sig ha haft sådana.

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Laboratoriexperiment

I boken Ut-ur-kroppen-upplevelser nämner författaren 8 parapsykologer som laboratoriemässigt sysslat med OBE.

Experimenttyp A

En skiva med hissanordnign hissas upp i taket och försökspersonen sätter sig under och försöker stiga upp för att se vad som finns där.

1. Såvande fp läste ett fem-siffrigt nummer korekt på första försöket.
2. Såvande fp skulle läsa ett femsiffrigt tal placerat utanför kontrollrummet men misslyckades.
3. Åtta försök att identifiera föremål. Åtta fullträffar.

Experimenttyp B

Experiment där det anordnas så att man kan avgöra ifall personen har sett föremålet från en punkt eller har använt telepati el dyl. Mätning av olika fysiska aktiviteter.

Vid ett fall visade en jämförelse mellan OBE och normaltillstånd ökad andningshastighet, ökad puls, minskad REM och minskat hudmotstånd.

Vid ett annat fall var enda skillnaden att medelamplituden för EEG minskade vid OBE.

En experimentserie med 50 universitetsstuderanden har gjorts. 21 stycken tyckte sig lämna kroppen. Deras skildringar var mycket varierande. Vid senare kontroll visade sig samtliga rapporter vara rena fantasiprodukter.

Experimenttyp C

Bygger på en hjälphypotes att medvetandet helt eller delvis består av kroppslig natur. Detektorer av olika slag sätts upp i rummet.

Resultaten blev motsägelsefulla.

Experimenttyp D

Bygger på en hjälphypotes att medvetandet är icke-fysiskt. Levande varelser används som mental detektor.

En experimentserie med en katt och dess ägare där katten tjänat som detektor. Under OBE var katten klart lugnare vilket mättes med hur många rutor de paserade i rummet och hur många gånger de jamade.


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Two areas where experimental parapsychology can claim to have recently made unequivocal progress concern the study of out-of-body experiences and the related topic of near-death experiences. Research in these areas has been succcssful in stimulating interest and gaining support amongst both the scientific and lay communities. More than twenty articles in orthodox scientific journals and close to the same number of books presenting research findings have appeared during the last ten years. Some authoritative summaries now exist of the basic knowledge that has been accumulated in the area of OBEs (Blackmore 1982, Irwin 1985b) and NDEs (Lundahl 1982, Greyson and Flynn 1984). In addition there are now a large number of popular books describing the author's own personal experience with OBEs or NDEs and popularising research findings in these areas. Furthermore the building of the IANDS - the International Association for Near Death Studies, has at least to date successfully combined both scientific and public interest in this area.

In spite of the above mentioned interest, the facts concerning the nature of these experiences remain few. Even so, there is now a body of knowledge which directly conflicts with the polarity of views that this subject gives rise to. At one extreme it is common for some authorities such as Monroe and Moody to at least encourage the interpretation of these experiences at face value, while on the other hand their critics still dismiss OBEs as hypnogogic delusions (Blomberg 1988) and NDEs as due hallucinations resulting from the effects of cerebral anoxia (Ingvar 1986). In reality there is little to support either view. Research has consistently showed that it is in fact rare that the OBE gives any direct representation of reality which proves veridical and would support a belief that the person is literally out of the body or astral traveling (See Alvardo 1982, Blackmorc 1982, Irwin 1985b for reviews). On the other hand OBEs are induced from many different states of consciousness and EEG recording (see for example Tart 1967) clearly indicates that the OBE is not a simple dream or hypnogogic state. Moreover, the majority of OBEs occur during a waking state (Blackmore 1984) and those reporting OBEs describe them as being more like the real world than a dream (Twemlow et al 1982, Blackmore 1984). Although NDEs have not been so extensively researched, these experiences seem to differ in their clarity and lucidity from those induced by hypoxia (lack of oxygen to brain cells) (Sabom 1982).

The outcome of the above generation of interest in the study of OBEs has been that some theoretical models have been developed and tested. One of the most influential of these is Blackmore's (1982) cognitive map theory which supposes that it is an inherent function of the brain to retain contact with the environment even during stress or when falling asleep - which are common circumstances for OBEs to occur in. The way the brain does this, is to utilize socalled cognitive maps or memory images of the environment and substitute this as the best possible picture of the world around that can be temporarily reconstructed during the period awaiting the return of sensory input to normal or the induction of a real dream period. Memory images have certainly some features in common with OBE perception, for instance the ability to see round objects and to place the perceiver in the back of or even above the head region.

Although Blackmore has been a eloquent and vocal propagandist for her theory, research findings give it only limited support. It is true that in accordance with the theory, those reporting OBEs are characterized by some abilities that might seem rclcvant to explaining the experience on purely psychological grounds. For instance such individuals appear to be slightly better at reversing perspective - seeing situations from the opposite viewpoint and they do seem to have as expected an ability tobecome totally absorbed in inner experience. Furthermorc they give evidence of having a superior sense of spatial relationships ( Irwin 1985a, 1985b). As regards the circumstances that are conducive to the occurrence of OBEs, psychophysiological studies indicate that they occur most often either during periods of low cortical arousal and deep relaxation or emotional stress. After relaxation, lucid dreaming is the most common state appearing to facilitate entry into OBE and a consistent finding is that lucid dreams are much more often reported by those experiencing OBEs. However in contraction to what Blackmore's theory would predict, those reporting OBEs do not possess any special ability for memorising or visualising of their surroundings (see Irwin for a summary of theses findings). Nevertheless the theory was influential in one respect in the present context - that of the design of experimentation here. In choosing induction methods for OBEs, an (albeit unsuccessful) attempt was made to actively confuse perceptual locus using reflected mirror images of the subject's body along with hypnotic suggestions.

Purely psychological theories of OBEs are often objected to on the grounds that they do nothing to explain the paranormal content of OBEs. It is nevertheless the case that such evidence, however convincing at first face, is often anecdotal and the few experimental studies are not well controlled from the point of view of flaws (Blackmore 1982). A literature review (Alvardo, 1982) of attempts at psi-testing during the OBE, found a total of 13 studies. Of these, 6 reported statistically significant results but none of these studies could be considered well controlled. Moreover from a theoretical stand-point, it remains inconclusive as to whether the supposed link between ESP and OBE is a causal or incidental one. Both phenomena may be relatively independent of each other but become associated through their links with altered states of consciousness - in particular the hypnogogic period. Also, as mentioned earlier, it does seem to be established that OBEs even when they subjectively appear to beveridical, more often than not, fail to correspond to objective reality. In the American Society for Psychical Research's major OBE project, approximately a 100 volunteers were formally tested on their ability to retrieve correct information about persons and objects placed in a target area. 85% were unsuccessful and they failed to find amongst the remainder anyone whose OBEs reliably gave correct perceptions. The participants Cole and Uppman also record many instances where the information they received during the OBE unexpectedly failed to correspond to reality. It may well be that since the OBE is far from being a stable uniform state, the degree of paranormality in the experience will vary according to the OBEs duration and intensity. Two studies (Palmer and Lieberman 1975, Smith and Irwin 1981) did in fact find that results on a psi-test related to the intensity (for example being to see one's own body) and duration (time out) of the experience. Thiswas an aspect that we had hoped to look at during the present study.

Another interesting application of psychological theory to the OBE concerns the relation of OBE to so called synesthesia or cross modal perceptions (for example the ability to translate sounds into colours). Synesthesia would seem to be an important dimension of the need for absorption - that is the need for immersion into inner experiencing. The usual instrument for measuring this, Tellegens absorption scale, has been shown to contain many items relating to synesthesia and what is impressive is that every one of these items sign)ficantly distinguished those reporting OBEs from nonreporters (Irwin 1985b). Subjective paranormal experiences seem to be also intimately related to the need for absorption (Irwin 1985a) and since absorption is one of the few psychological variables showing a consistent relationship with OBEs, it is argued (Irwin 1985b p. 313) that if a state of absorption is psi-conducive it is feasible that the veridicality of some aspects of some OBEs has an extrasensory basis. The individual's conviction that the perceiving self literally is placed at the remote location arguably could facilitate extrasensory processes. On this theory according to Irwin, an OBE is then an hallucinatory experience in which bodily sensations are translated into imagery and further transformed into ideational activity or put more simply a flight of mind in bodily form.

Irrespective of whatever credibility be ascribed to the theory, the findings have given rise to some practical and testable implications. It will be interesting to investigate whether such synesthetic experiences are more common amongst those reported many OBEs. A very promising means of OBE induction in many normal subjects would seem to be through the creation of synesthetic harmony (for example by asking the subject to pair taste, sound and colours). Some preliminary data (quoted by Irwin 1 985b p.3 19) suggests this to be an effective method.

Another approach concerns the validity of experience itself, that is the phenomenology of OBE. Both Scott Rogo (1978) and myself (Parker 1976) have suggested this can be done by studying the degree of experiential overlap between two persons who are simultaneously in the OBE state and who project to the same location. There are some very informal but nevertheless initially impressive studies, reported where two subjects have simultaneously undergone a procedure for inducing an altered state and then reported shared experiences (Tart 1968, Rechtschaffen 1970, see Parker 1976 for a review). Obviously the availability of two subjects reporting frequent spontaneous OBEs created a unique opportunity to attempt to carry out some further experimentation along these lines.

Psychological theory has also a contribution to make in more general terms by conceptualising the OBE as an altered state of consciousness linked to the hypnogogic period (the twilight period between thewaking and sleep states). Since the ganzfeld technique of sensory deprivation has proved to be a useful laboratory means of inducing a hypnogogic-like state, it is an obvious candidate for facilitation of OBEs. There is in fact one study, by Palmer and Lieberman, where the Ganzfeld was successfully used to induce OBEs amongst ordinary subjects and was reported to have an apparent 65% induction rate compared with a 20% rate from a control procedure. Palmer's theory is that an OBE occurs when there is a change in the experiencer's body concept due to an alteration in the person's bodily sensations. This is anxiety provoking and threatens the individual's self concept. When there is an expectancy of having or instructions to have, an out-of- body experience, then the labeling these sensations as an OBE becomes a simple way of resolving this identity crisis.

Hypnotic suggestions aimed at changing, perhaps even confounding perceptual relationships have also been reported to be an effective experimental means of inducing OBEs including out of body experiences (Aaronson 1965). This is then the background to the use made of the Ganzfeld and hypnosis in our preliminary experimentation.

It should also be mentioned that various other techniques or suggestions for methods of OBE induction abound in both the serious and the occult literature. These include dream control (Mitchell 1988), the Christos technique (Mclntosh 1979), and various meditative and relaxation procedures. None of these would seem to offer the degree of precision and theoretical anchorage that the above methods presented.


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The OOBE

The OOBE (out of body experience) is a real time projection close to the physical world. This often occurs as part of a near death experience. This is where a person is knocked out of their body as a result of some kind of severe trauma, i.e. car accident, surgery, heart attack, child birth etc. OOBE'ers are aware of things happening in the real world, in real time; such as conversations and events centred around, or near to, their physical body. In many cases, these events and conversations are accurately reported by the person after they have returned to their body.

Note: The OOBE is slightly different from astral projection or lucid dreaming because of its real time, objective aspect. This is caused by the astral body containing a large amount of etheric matter, which holds it close to the physical world.

There are two main causes of real time OOBE:

1. A person's body is near death, or thinks it is, which causes a large amount of etheric matter to be channelled into the astral body in preparation for the death process.
2. The person has active chakras which are doing a similar thing,i.e. channelling etheric matter into the astral body. Having active chakras can be a natural ability, or it can be developed by training.

Note: You can project consciously, and have a real time OOBE if enough etheric matter is generated by the chakras. In an OOBE, reality is perceived as objective (real) and time is normal (real time).

Technically, when you project into the physical world in real time as in an OOBE, it is really into the boundary area of the buffer zone, between the physical and astral dimensions. If the astral body contains enough etheric matter it can exist only slightly out of phase from reality. This means the projection is in real time and so close to the physical dimension as to be indistinguishable from it.

Note: I have checked this many times, by projecting, in real time, during the day and scouting my local area for road works, accidents, incidents etc, then verifying the accuracy of my findings afterwards.

There are strong natural barriers to conscious, real time projection, the OOBE, in the physical world. The amount of etheric matter generated and channelled to the astral body, is one of them. It limits the duration of any real time projection to the degree of chakra development and control.

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The Astral Projection

This is where the astral body is projected into the astral dimension, where things are quite different from the real world. Time is distorted and extended, i.e., an hour in the astral can be like a few minutes in the physical dimension, depending on what part of the astral you are in. Reality is fluid and changeable.

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The Lucid Dream

This is where a person becomes fully aware that they are dreaming during a dream. They either take some kind of conscious control over the course of events, or they convert the experience into an astral projection. Lucid dreaming is more similar to an astral projection than to an OOBE, as time and reality are distorted.

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Astral Projection Or Lucid Dream?

Many astral projectors black out before making a conscious exit from their body and return to awareness in the astral dimension. You become aware after the actual separation from the physical body and are usually already in the astral dimension. If you miss the conscious exit from your body you are technically having a lucid dream, not an astral projection as you have become aware after separation.

All three types of projection are closely related, i.e., they all involve the astral body separating from the physical and experiencing a reality separate from the physical body.

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I en sådan upplever personen att han lyfter och ser sin egen kropp utifrån. Kan också upplevas som skakningar, ryckningar, brusningar, orkanblåsningar i nackpartiet och värmeböljor.

Skakningarna eller ryckningarna kan vara otroligt skrämmande, när det känns som att få 200 volt genom kroppen -fast utan smärta. Blåsningar i nackpariet kan också vara skrämmande, då det känns som nacken böjs bakåt och det blåser som en orkan rakt in i nackpartiet och det kan oftast kännas som om man håller på att ramla ur sängen.

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Teori om UKU

När man har lyckats med att behålla medvetandet efter sömnparalysen kommer man in i vibrationsstadiet. Ursprunget är okänt, men man tror att vibrationerna man känner är den energi som laddas upp i energikroppen, den fysiska kropp som man lämnar för att anpassa sig det högre planets vibrationsfrekvens.

En UKU och en astralprojektion är två helt olika saker. UKU kallas även för eterisk projektion.
Enligt vissa personer består världen av en rad olika plan, varje plan har en högre vibrationsfrekvens än det föregående planet.
Det fysiska planet, där vi är nu, har den lägsta vibrationsfrekvensen.
Över det fysiska planet ligger det eteriska planet, som har en aning högre vibrationsfrekvens än det fysiska. Eftersom skillnaden mellan det eteriska och fysiska planet är så liten är det då möjligt att från det eteriska kunna se en nästan exakt kopia av det fysiska planet.

Det astrala planet ligger ovanför det eteriska. Om man tänker i längd kan man säga att det eteriska ligger 20 cm över det fysiska planet, medan det astrala ligger 2 meter ovanför det fysiska.
På grund av den stora skillnaden i vibrationsfrekvens är det astrala helt annorlunda från det fysiska och eteriska planet, medan det finns objekt både i det eteriska och fysiska består det astrala planet av ren energi.

Det sägs att när man drömmer befinner man sig i det astrala planet, eftersom detta är väldigt likt drömmar. Det finns inga riktiga objekt i det astrala planet och det reagerar starkt på tankar och vilja. Om man är i det astrala har man förmågan att materialisera föremål utifrån minnet, men även saker som inte existerar.

Det finns platser i det astrala som kallas sinneslandskap (ie. Mindscapes). Det skulle då vara platser som har skapats av drömmar.